It moved to Spain, where it turned the color of the Spanish Habsburgs, of Charles V and of his son, Philip II of Spain (1527–1598). European rulers noticed it as the colour of power, dignity, humility and temperance. By the top of the sixteenth century, it was the colour worn by almost all the monarchs of Europe and their courts. In fashion, black did not have the status of purple, the colour of the the Aristocracy. It was worn by Benedictine monks as an indication of humility and penitence. In the 12th century a well-known theological dispute broke out between the Cistercian monks, who wore white, and the Benedictines, who wore black.

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